Phasing Out Wind Farm Tax Credit Divides Oregon Groups
Ted Sickinger | The Oregonian via YellowBrix
December 14, 2009
But the report didn’t analyze how incentive programs in different states would apply to a comparable project, or how Oregon’s subsidy system stacks up. The fundamental question of whether the subsidies are necessary was not addressed.
Mark Long, director of the Department of Energy, said a state-by-state comparison proved too complicated. The viability of a wind farm, he said, depends on a variety of factors, including local wind conditions, available transmission and state renewables mandates.
“We did some informal referencing with other states and we came up with 483 different (incentive) scenarios,” Long said. “We didn’t feel there was a good apples-to-apples comparison with other states based on how their programs operate.”
The department’s report suggested that wind energy is maturing and proposed an alternative formula to calculate the tax credits that would phase them out over five years.
It also recommended that the state adopt a biennial cap to limit renewables tax credits to between 1 and 4 percent of energy suppliers’ 2008 revenues in Oregon. That translates to a cap on renewables credits between $73 million and $292 million per biennium, the report said.
Long said the phase out, coupled with the cap, would control state subsidies for renewables projects as wind farms moved to the point where they could stand on their own.
“Our conclusions were that this level of incentive is necessary” he said. “We think this has provided that level of analysis.”
Sen. Ginny Burdick, D-Portland, who sponsored the Legislature’s bill to reduce the BETC, said the governor’s endorsement of the proposals is a good starting point for new discussions about the program, but certainly not a final product.
“I’m strongly supportive of the environmental goals of green energy,” she said, “but my main concern is to stop a runaway gravy train.”
Here’s how the various incentive regimes play out:
Under Oregon’s existing BETC program, wind farm developers can apply for a tax credit worth 50 percent of a project’s cost up to $20 million, meaning a maximum credit of $10 million ($11 million, including cost overruns). They can use the credit themselves over five years or sell it to a third party to raise upfront cash for their projects.
The bill passed by the Legislature earlier this year and vetoed by Kulongoski would have reduced the maximum credit to $3.5 million, the same level of subsidy the program offered before the BETC was increased in 2007.
Under the new proposal, wind developers would be eligible for a subsidy equal to 5 percent of their project costs up to $200 million, meaning a maximum BETC of $10 million. The percentage would decline by 1 percent a year over five years, phasing out altogether in the sixth year.
The agencies’ report to Kulongoski compared the existing incentive with the proposed incentive model for 55 projects, about a third of which have already received their tax credits.
The largest impact of the change was on small projects. On a $25 million wind farm, for instance, the tax credit would decline from $11 million under the existing system to $1.3 million. That change would make it less appealing for project developers to break up their projects into multiple applications to maximize their credits — a practice state officials are anxious to eliminate.
The proposal has a more limited impact — in the short run at least — on subsidies for large projects that have been capturing most the subsidies.
The report identified 13 large-scale wind farms, either proposed or under development, that have submitted pre-applications for the BETC. Under the proposed formula, the projects would be eligible for up to $118 million in subsidies, compared with $130 million under current rules.
The average cost of those projects was more than $300 million. Even in the fourth year of the phase out period envisioned by state energy officials, a project of that size would be eligible for a $4 million subsidy.
In a letter sent to the governor and key legislators last week, the Renewable Northwest Project, a trade group for renewables developers, said the state should consider a maximum $7 million subsidy for large wind farms next biennium.
But the groups also urged lawmakers not to make any changes retroactively, or “reverse its commitments” to projects that had applied for-pre certification with the state.
“Reversing a promise,” RNP warned, “would invite lawsuits.”
At least one tax activist, meanwhile, called the report “a greenwash job.”
“It would take four years for the subsidy to be reduced to the amount that (the governor) vetoed in the bill,” said Jody Wiser, who heads a group called Oregon Tax Fairness. “I think it was supposed to make us nod our heads and say it’s okay. But it’s not.”